. . .

. . .

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italy

 

http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Italia

[...] ITALY'S CAPITAL AND LARGEST CITY, ROME,

HAS FOR CENTURIES BEEN THE LEADING POLITICAL

AND RELIGIOUS CENTRE OF WESTERN CIVILISATION, SERVING AS THE CAPITAL OF BOTH THE ROMAN EMPIRE

AND CHRISTIANITY.

 

[...] BEGINNING AROUND THE 11TH CENTURY, VARIOUS ITALIAN CITIES, COMMUNES AND MARITIME REPUBLICS ROSE TO GREAT PROSPERITY THROUGH SHIPPING,

COMMERCE AND BANKING (INDEED, MODERN CAPITALISM

HAS ITS ROOTS IN MEDIEVAL ITALY); CONCURRENTLY, ITALIAN CULTURE FLOURISHED, ESPECIALLY DURING

THE RENAISSANCE, WHICH PRODUCED MANY NOTABLE SCHOLARS, ARTISTS, AND POLYMATHS SUCH AS LEONARDO DA VINCI, GALILEO, MICHELANGELO AND MACHIAVELLI.